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Annotated Bibliography, 12-1-06

 In order to avoid repeating information presented better elsewhere, the reader is referred to the three page Toxicodendron article in Wikipedia, and the five page externally linked article A Little more information on Urishii (www.pentrace.com/east/wajima/urushi.html)


Poison-Oak: An Annotated Bibliography
by Curt Beebe 2-14-00

S before a citation means substantive for the project.
MD, PhD and RN indicate authors  discipline.

Ale, S.I. (1997) "Allergic contact dermatitis caused by Lithraea  molleoides and Lithraea brasiliensis: identification and characterization of the responsible allergens" Am J Contact  Dermat 8:3, pp. 144-9.

American Academy of Dermatology (1993) "Poison Ivy, Sumac & Oak" (pamphlet).

S  Anderson, Thomas E. (1995) The Poison Ivy, Oak & Sumac Book; A Short Natural History and Cautionary Account (Acton Circle, Ukiah, CA). 581.69 And at the Museum; and 581.69 at Lompoc Public Library through Morro Bay Public Library. The best evaluation of over-the-counter therapeutics. Up to date and reasonably complete. His assertions that urushiol is unaffected by fire, lasts forever, transfers without loss of concentration, and "binds" irreversibly to the skin are partly fanciful and unnecessarily anxiety provoking. Washing with alcohol is described incorrectly. Written by a non-scientist, who did a lot of homework and writes well. Recommended. (My references: #2 p.35; 3 p.31; 4 p.42; 5 pp.49-51; 7 p.91; and 11 p.29-30).

S  MD  Armstrong, W.P. and Epstein, W.L. (1995) "Poison Oak! More Than Just Scratching The Surface!" Herbalgram Number 34, pp.36-42 (American Botanical Council, P.O. Box 201660, Austin, TX 78720;  (512)926-4900; cust serv @[remove] herbalgram.org, $6.00 per back copy). Personal library.

S  PhD  Baer, Harold et. al. (1967) "DELAYED CONTACT SENSTIVITY TO CATECHOLS III. The Relationship of Side-Chain Length to Sensitizing Potency of Catechols Chemically Related to the Active Principles of Poison Ivy" The Journal of Immunology 99:2, pp. 370 - 5. 17 carbon side chains are slightly more potent than 15; most other compounds were 1/10th to 1/100th as potent, and none was stronger.

RN  Beyea, Suzanne C. (1989) "What people expect you to know about poison ivy" RN August issue, pp. 23-5. "It's important to clean thoroughly under the fingernails...since urushiol left there may cause further contamination."

Brody, Jane E. (1999) "Avoiding Poison Ivy" New York Times News Service. "...avoid using topical products that contain antihistamines; they can make the reaction worse by causing a sensitivity reaction.

PhD  Cannon, W.A. (1949) "A Tentative Classification of Root Systems" Ecology 30, pp. 552-8. Available at Kennedy Library, QH450 E3. Reproduced in part, with criticism by Fitter, Alastair in "Characteristics and Functions of Root Systems" pp. 6, 7, and 18, Chapter 1 of Waisel, cited below; Fitter cited Cannon as pp. 452-8 instead of 552-8. Cannon's TYPE II is characteristic of Eastern Poison-oak. TYPE VI is the "dual" root system referred to by Lambers, p. 171, as characteristic of Mediterranean plants.  TYPE IX (adventitious): "the commonest, fleshy to fibrous, layered, from a non-specialized stem, from nodes originating growth, singly with secondary roots and in groups or clusters" describes the adventitious roots I am seeing. The fleshy roots are seen at the base of rapidly growing stems. The fibrous roots I've found on stems that have been buried by leaves. QH450E3.

Champion, R.H. et al, editors (1998) Rook/Wilkinson/Ebling Textbook of Dermatology, Sixth Edition (Blackwell Science Ltd,350 Main St., Malden, MA 02148). Borland Library. In Volume 1 there are a number of interesting chapters. Chapter 2 by Burns, DA and Ebling, FJB Comparative Dermatology may be of future use. Chapter 20 by  Wilkinson, JD and Shaw, S Contact Dermatitis: Allergic details reaction types, vulnerabilities, and time frames. Chapter 21 by  Ryercroft, RJG  Principal Irritants and Sensitizers is moderately detailed. In Chapter 23 the Rule of Nines is presented and discussed on page 942.

Coffeen, Mary (1993 Central Coast Wildflowers: Monterey, San Luis Obispo & Santa Barbara Counties of California (EZ Nature Books, San Luis Obispo). Focuses on the most interesting local plants.

Considine, Douglas M. and Glenn D., editors (1983) "Geologic time scale" in van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York) pp. 1351-2.

S  PhD  Craig John C. et.al. (1978) "New GLC Analysis of Urushiol  Congeners in Different Plant Parts of Poison Ivy, Toxicodendron radicans" Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 67:4 pp.483-5.

MD  Cruz, Ponciano D., Jr. (1997) "Contact Dermatitis" pp.78-81, Chapter 16 in Arndt, Kenneth A. Primary Care Dermatology (Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Company). Has specific treatment recommendations.

S  PhD  Dallman, Peter R. (1998) Plant Life in the World's Mediterranean Climates (University of California Press, Berkeley). Museum 581.42 Dal c.1 MB. (My reference 16)

Dodd, John D.(1962) Form and Function in Plants (The Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa). Kennedy Library QK 641 D6. Good classroom demonstrations.

S  PhD  ElSohly, Mahmoud A., et. al. (1982) "Separation and characterization  of poison ivy and poison oak urushiol components", Journal of Natural Products 45:5, pp. 532-538. Photocopy in author's personal library. 38% urushiol is a brownish oily residue; 99% urushiol is a light brown oil.

S  MD  Epstein, William L., et.al. (1997) "It's always poison ivy time" Patient Care 31:11, starting p. 31, 13 pages. Text available in UCLA computer. Laurie Lewis did a great  job writing this up for Doctors Epstein, Jere D. Guin, and Howard I. Maibach. The three are Professors of Dermatology. Epstein and Maibach are at the University of California, San  Francisco, School of Medicine; Guin is at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock. I particularly liked Table I "Common characteristics of poison ivy and poison oak."(Substitute 'petiole' for the word 'stem'.) Bridges the medical and lay literature. Moderately comprehensive.

MD  Epstein, William (1996) "Prevention of Poison Ivy & Poison  Oak", Network for Continuing Medical Education video #697, Released May 27, 1996; 7 minutes. Available through the Museum Library.

MD  Epstein, William L. (1989) "Topical Prevention of Poison  Ivy/Oak Dermatitis" Arch Dermatol 125 pp.499-501. About organoclay.

MD  Epstein, William L. (1974) "Poison Oak Hyposensitization"  Arch Dermatol 109pp.35-60. Reports treatment of 500 men for up to 3 years; the best of the hyosensitisation literature.

Esau, Katherine (1961) Anatomy of Seed Plants (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York) pp. 163-5. Museum library. "Fig. 12.4...F, Rhus  typhina. Schizogenous secretory canals in cross section... Secretory... canals... are spaces resulting from... a separation of cells... The best-known... in conifers are called resin ducts, those in the dicotyledons gum ducts... but both kinds... occur in both plant groups."

Fisher, Alexander A. (1973) "Dermatitis Due to Plants and Spices"  pp. 243-72 (especially 260-9), Chapter 14 in Contact Dermatitis, Second Edition (Philadelhia, Lea & Febiger). "...primin, the antigenic substance of the primrose, is stored in fragile cells in superficial glandular hairs and is released by casual contact. In contrast, the sensitizing substance in some daisies is stored in resin canals and released only when the plant is bruised or crushed."(p. 244) Substantially revised from first edition. Kennedy Library.

Fisher, Alexander A. (1967) "Contact Dermatitis Due to Plants" pp. 67-90, Chapter 5 in the First Edition of Contact Dermatitis. "Certain individuals...show cross-reactivity with other phenolic compounds such as resorcinol, hexylresorcinol, and the hydroquinones, but not to phenol itself."(p. 85). Kennedy Library.

S  PhD  Frankel, Edward (1991) POISON IVY POISON OAK POISON SUMAC and their relatives (The Boxwood Press, 183 Ocean View Blvd., Pacific Grove, CA 93950; 408-375-9110). Chapter 6, "Relatives of the Toxicodendrons", pp.46-61, is the most specific information I have encountered. He describes winter buds as stalked, hairy and with scale-less, which is what I am seeing. His illustrator drew simple racemes instead of panicles. Not available for sale per Coalesce. Obtained from Fresno County Public Library through San Luis Obispo City-County Library.  

S  MD  Freedberg, Irwin M., et.al., editors (1999) Fitzpatricks Dermatology in General Medicine Fifth Edition (McGraw-Hill, San Francisco) Volume 1: pp. 42 Superficial Reactive Unit, Epidermis ; Chapter 7 "The Structure and Development of Skin" pp. 70-87 (introductory page, and section on epidermis); Chapter 28 "The Epidermis; An Immunologic Microenvironment" pp. 343-63 (more does references p. 364-); Chapter 122 "Allergic Contact  Dermatitis" pp. 1447-61. French Hospital Medical Library. Exhaustive!   Fuller, Thomas C. and McClintock, Elizabeth (1986) Poisonous Plants of California (Berkeley, University of California Press, Berkeley) (My reference 6 p. 65)

S  MD  Garner, Lisa A. (1999) "Poison Ivy Oak, and Sumac Dermatitis" The Phyician and Sportsmedicine 27:5(May) p.33-43. "Sensitivity...carries over to related plants that have sivilar catechols. Among these are...Brazilian pepper...The quantity of resin on the skin, skin thickness at the site of exposure, and the person's sensitivity all affect the timing of the eruption...Early lesions may resemble insect bites...Weeping vesicles or bullae should be dried using cool compresses of Burow's solution (1:40 dilutio) or Domeboro astringent solution (Bayer Consumer Care Division, Morris Township, NJ; one tablet in 1 pint of water) applied for 15 minutes two to four times daily...high-potency topical corticosteroids should not be used on the face or areas such as the groin and axillae...because of the risk of atrophy, corticosteroid-induced facial acne, or rosacea even with short courses. For other parts of the body, when lesions are weeping, gel formulations are a good choice...The main cause of failure in  systemic corticosteroid treatment is premature discontinuation of therapy leading to a rebound flare-up of the dermatitis...A double-blind study...found three barrier creams to be partially effective..These were Hollister moisture barrier skin ointment (Hollister, Inc, Libertyville, IL), Hydropel protective barrier ointment (C&M Parmacal, Inc, Hazel Park, MI), and Stokogard outdoor cream (formerly made by Stockhausen Inc, Greensboro, NC). Stokogard...was most effective." A few things in this article were inconsistent with other literature and/or did not make sense to me.

PhD  Gartner, Barbara.L. (1991) "STRUCTURAL STABILITY AND ARCHITECTURE OF VINES VS. SHRUBS OF POISON OAK, TOXICODEDRON DIVERSILOBUM" Ecology 72:6, pp. 2005-15. Technical; not an easy read.

PhD  Gartner, Barbara.L. (1991) "RELATIVE GROWTH RATES OF VINES AND SHRUBS OF WEESTERN POISON OAK, TOXICODENDRON DIVERILOBUM (ANACARDICEAE)" American Journal of Botany 78:10, pp. 1345-53. Language technical.

S  PhD  Gillis, William T., "The Systematics and Ecology of Poison Ivy and the Poison-oaks (Toxicodendron, Anacardiaceae)", Rhodora 73 1971, issue numbers 793, pp. 72-160; 794, pp. 161-237; 795, pp. 370-443; and 796, pp. 465-540. Kennedy Library has Rhodora; a complete copy of the article is also available at the Museum library. Slightly dated; otherwise definitive. Strongly recommended. (My references 1 p. 117; 2 p. 99

MD, PhD  Guin, Jere D. of Kokomo, IN; Gillis, William T., who died while this exhibit was being prepared; and Beaman, John  H., PhD of East Lansing, MI (1981) "Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison, and poison sumac)" J Am Acad Dermatol 4 pp. 99-114. An exhibit presented at the 38th Annual meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology, December 1979. The article is in color; despite use of a photo/text copier, black and white reproduction did not do this article justice. Available at the Borland Medical Library, Jacksonville; unfortunately no arrangements for color copying could be negotiated.  

S  MD  Guin, Jere D. (1980) "The black spot test for recognizing poison ivy and related species" J Am Acad Dermatol 2:332-3. I adapted Guin's test for demonstration on the trail: put a drop of sap inside a circle drawn on a 3 x 5 card; put the card in a snack-sized Ziploc bag; show it at 30 seconds (straw colored), 10 minutes (light brown), and an hour (dark brown); if you wish bring another test card which is a day or more old (black).

S  MD  Guyton, Arthur C. and Hall, John E. (1997) Human Physiology and Mechanisms of Disease, Sixth Edition (Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Company). Personal library. "This textbook..is written for those students who don't have the time to study one of the more formidable books and yet require more than the usual college introduction..."(Preface). One of my favorite books: readable, and informative without being overwhelming.

Hickman, James C., Editor (1993) ANACARDIACEAE The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California (University of California Press, Berkeley) pp 134-7.  

Hickman, J.C. (1993) The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California  (University of California Press, Berkeley). Complete and authoritative; but very technical, expensive, heavy and large.

S  Johnson, Richard A. et al (1972) "Comparison of the contact allergenicity of the four pentadecylcatechols derived from poison ivy urushiol in human subjects" J.Allergy Clin Immunol. 49:1, pp.27-35. The diolefin was strongest; triolefin 92% as strong; mono-olefin 72%; and pentadecylcatechol 40%.

PhD  Kingsbury, John M. (1964) Poisonous Plants of the United States and Canada (Englewood Cliffs, NJ; Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ). Museum library 581.69097 Kin c.1 MB. (My reference 8, pp.212-3) A standard reference.  

Koslowski, Theodore t. and Pallardy, Stephen G. (1997) Physiology of Woody Plants, 2nd Edition (Academic Press, San Diego) p 58. Kennedy Library QK711.2.K72. Authoritative, contemporary and moderately detailed. General background information. I focused on their roots sections for background information, and particularly liked Figure 2.25 p 25 heuristiically. Screening the remainder of the text I liked the tree ring diagram on p 118 Figure 2.15.

PhD  Krausel, R. (1919) Nachtrage zur Tertiaflora Schlesiens, III. Uber einige Originale Goepperts und neure Funde. Jahrb. Preuss. Geol. Landesanst. 40: 363-433. Cited by Gillis on pp. 134 and 535; great fossil photo p. 135. Part of the evidence that Toxicodendra once grew in Europe.  

S  PhD  Lambers, Hans; Chapin, F.Stuart III; and Pons, Thijs, L.Pons (1998) Plant Physiological Ecology (New York, Springer). Kennedy Library QK717.L35.  

Lanken, Dane (2001) An Itch to Remember; An amateur arborist learns the hard way about poison-ivy and its irritating relatives Canadian Geographic, July/August pp. 44-50. The photographs are tinted, but still informative. 

Lopez, CB et.al. (1998) "CD8+ T cells are the effectors of the contact dermatitis induced by urushiol in mice and are regulated by CD4+ T cells" International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 117:3, pp.194-201. I have only seen the abstract. "...litre (Lithraea caustica), a Chilean endemic tree...3-pentadecyl (10- enyl) catechol (litreol)..."  

S  Leite, Daliel (1982) Don't Scratch! The Book About Poison Oak (Walnut Creek, CA; Weathervane Books). Museum 583.28 Lei c.1 Ref. Taping a leaf to the forearm to check immune status has caused problems and is no longer done. Very well written, and makes unique contributions. Worthwhile. (My references 3; 5 p.21; 9 p.31; 10 p.53)  

MD  Marks,James G.Jr. andDeLeo,Vincent A.(1997) Contact and Occupational Dermatology (Mosby, Portland. Borland Library WR175M346c. Dinitrochlorobenzene spelled out. More clinical on the differential diagnosis of irritant vs allergic contact dermatitiis. States the concept of an elicitation  phase more clearly. Photographs showing equivocal to three plus reactions. Convenient lists of the   plants most likely to cause allergic, irritant, photic and urticarial dermatitis. Risks to farmers, florists, food handlers and office staff.

S  MD  Marks, James G. Jr. et.al. (1984) "Dermatitis from cashew nuts" J Am Acad Dermatol 10:627-31. An example of 'topical hardening'; this may be one way Native Americans got along with poison-oak. 

McAuley, Milt (1996) Wildflowers of the Santa Monica Mountains (Canyon Publishing Company, Canoga Park, CA). Color indexed; fairly complete.

The Medical Letter (1981) "DESENSITIZATION TO POISON IVY" 23:8 (Issue 581) p.40. Cites the majority opinion at the time. Injectibles went off the US market in 1995. I am told that oral therapy went over-the-counter; and recently went off the market because people were starting hyposensitization while broken out.

MD  Mitchell, John and Rook, Arthur (1979) Botanical Dermatology; Plants and Plant Products Injurious to the Skin (Greengrass, Vancouver). Kennedy Library RC593 .C6 M57. A classic! Best discussion of plant injuries and ANACARDIACEAE toxicity.

MD PhD  Orchard, Susan et.al. (1986) "Poison Ivy/Oak Dermatitis; Use of Polyamine Salts of a Linoleic Acid Dimer for Topical Prophylaxis" Arch Dermatol 122 pp.783-9.  

PhD  Russo, Ronald A. (1979) Plant Galls of the California Region

(The Boxwood Press, Pacific Grove, CA). (My reference 14, p.3).

MD  Shelley, Walter B. (1965) Basophil Degranulation Induced by Oral Poison Ivy Antigen Arch Derm 92 August, four pages. Good evidence for a concurrent immediate allergic component.

MD Shelmire, Bedford (1941) Cutaneous and systemic reactions observed during oral poison ivy therapy The Journal of Allergy pp252-71. Borland Library. Shelmires sons nanny was very allergic  to poison-ivy. He experimented on her extensively. On one occasion he smeared the steering wheel of the family car before she housekeeper drove it; one another occasion he cut a two centimeter square biopsy from her skin, ground it up, and injected it into other patients. A discussant said I have been one of Shelmires victims, sometimes wittingly and sometimes unwittingly Like the Straus study this was done before the era of informed consent!

Spellenberg, R. (1998) National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers, Western Region Alfred A. Knopf, New York). Color indexed; fairly complete but very general. Will sometimes give the genus.

Stehlin, Isadora B. (1996) "Outsmarting poison ivy and its cousins" FDA Consumer 30:7, starts p.25 (4 pages). She helpfully wrote up some of Epstein's observations not published elsewhere. MD  Straus, Henry W. (1931) "Artificial sensitization of infants to poison ivy" The Journal of Allergy 2:3 pp. 137-44. What happens to poison-oak naive subjects.  

Sullivan, Dana (1999) "Save the day" Bicycling 40:4, starts p.76 (2 pages). "Immediately wash with soap and water, and towel gently...If runny sores or a rash appear later...make  a paste with baking soda and water...don't put on garments that may have been exposed to the plants without washing them first in hot water."  

Tec Laboratories, Inc., P.O. Box 1958, Albany, OR 97321-0512; teclabsinc.com; 1-888-OAK-N-IVY;  1-800-ITCHING. Tec proposes that if lesions continue to appear 72 hours after the first ones that you are being re-exposed. On the Tecnu bottle they caution ""Do not use this product for at least 3 days after using hydrocortisone ointments..."  

University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources (1996) "Poison Oak" Pest Notes Number 32, 4 pages. Available from the Cooperative Extension; 2156 Sierra Way, Suite C; San Luis Obispo, CA 93401, (805)781-5949, FAX (805)781-4316.  

University of California at Berkeley Wellness Letter (1996) "Ivy League" 12:7 (April), p.8. "In rare instances, English ivy can produce an almost identical rash. The irritant is falcarinol, rather than urushiol. Chrysanthemums contain other allergens known as sequiterpene lactones ('sesquiterpene lactones in Compositae' per Freedberg, p. 1448), also present in many flower species including asters, dahlias, and magnolias. The best remedies for all such rashes are...cold compresses...and the passage of time."  

PhD  Waisel, Yoav et. al., editors (1996) Plant Roots; The Hidden Half, Second Edition (New York; Marcel Dekker, Inc.). Kennedy Library QK 644.P54. 1002 pages organized into 49 chapters. I chewed on this text for several weeks, and ended up with two 3x5 cards worth of information for my project. Chapter 18 described rhizotrons and metacutinization; the latter is the way root tips protect themselves at the onset of a drought. Chapter 6 layed out the spectrum of soil moisture preferences: hydrophyte (according to Webster's "helophyte" would  be next), hygrophyte, mesophyte, xerophyte and halophyte. Chapter 47, "Roots as a Source of Food", and Chapter 49, "Medicinal Roots", are of general interest. Not otherwise recommended.

PhD  Walters, Dirk (1998) "Plants of the Elfin Forest: Poison Oak" Oak Leaves (SWAP) Aug./Sept. (My reference 1 p.6).  

PhD  Walters, Dirk R. and Keil, David J. (1996) Vascular Plant Taxonomy (Dubuque, Iowa; Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company). Kennedy Library QK 93. W35 1996. For sale at the Cal Poly book store and Aida's. A fine introduction to taxonomy. (My references 4 p.83 and 13).

(1968) Webster's Third New International Dictionary (Springfield, MA; G. & C. Merriam Company). Good definitions of most technical botanical terms. The most complete of all my sources. Unconditionally recommended.

Wilson, Carl L. (1952) Botany (The Dryden Press, New York) pp. ?(includes Figures 8.12-8.17  and page 105). Museum library. "Scattered through wood and bark.. are vertical and horizontal resin canals... The horizontal canals... form a connective system with the vertical canals.  

Zanfel Laboratories, Inc., P.O. Box 349, Morton, IL 61550, 1-800-401-4002, www.zanfel.com

The following references were studied but in the opinion of the author are not useful to the current reader.  

Andrs, Ronald J. (1977) "A Comprehensive Study of Poison Oak Urushiol" (San Luis Obispo, California Polytechnic State University) Senior Project 77-1384. At the Museum and Kennedy Library. Made hamsters allergic.  

Frink, Nelson (1978) "Poison Oak" (San Luis Obispo, California Polytechnic Stat University) Senior Project 78-0659. At the Museum and Kennedy Library. Continued Andrs study.  

Petrides, George A. (1958) A Field Guide to Trees and Shrubs: Field marks of all trees, shrubs, and woody vines that grow wild in the northeastern and north-central United States and in southeastern and south-central Canada (Houghton Mifflin Company, Cambridge, MA) pp. 242-3, 246-7, 296, 300-1. I attempted to compare the eastern oaks with western poison-oak. This approach is flawed; I don't know how the "oak" got in the name.  

Schwartz, David (1986) "Leaflets Three; The sense and nonsense of poison ivy and its itchsome kin" Country Journal, August 1986, pp. 42-50. Available at the Museum Library in the pamphlet file under Botany - Poisonous Plants. Outdated; recommended for elimination from the collection.  

WAYNE'S WORD 8:2 summer 1999,                             daphne.palomar.edu/wayne/ww0802.htm  26 Feb. 1999, 13 pp. Modified from Armstrong, W.P. (1995). It was more accessible than Herbalgram, so I read it first. Review of the two articles side by side showed they ran word-for-word with one curious exception: "Another remedy for the discomfort of itching poison oak lesions was recently reported to WAYNE'S WORD. It is a pore minimizer acne treatment with 2% salicylic acid (available from several manufacturers, including Neutrogena and Johnson & Johnson). According to a recent e-mail message the pore minimizer 'really stops the itching much better than any cortisone or calamine type product, and also stops the weeping and proliferation of the lesions.' Although we have not tested this treatment on the WAYNE'S WORD staff it might be worth trying!"


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